Do Your Own Research
Updated: Mar 20
©2019 by Bob Koford
I have read several articles from newspaper archives and have also studied many documents from the official Air Force UFO investigation, thanks in no small part to the now unavailable bluebookarchive. Some cases are worth taking a second or even a third look at. The Mantell and the Eastern Airlines cases are two examples. There are actually very good reasons to NOT explain away the Chiles-Whitted event as simply meteoric and to NOT assume Captain Mantell died from Hypoxia.
Regarding the Chiles/Whitted case, a serious issue shows up in the details. One of these pertains to the fact that meteors don't have windows running down both sides. You wouldn't be able to see right through the windows and out the other side if it was just a bolide, in the distance.
In Captain Mantell’s case, the Air Force Intelligence papers say he died at 15:18 hours (3:18 PM), because his watch was shattered and frozen at that time. In another outline of the Air Force investigation, they fixed Captain Mantell's death at "approximately 3:20 P.M.". Both were apparently incorrect.
That false information gave us the impression that he crashed almost immediately after he reported that he was going up for a better look. His last transmission, as reported in the Air Intelligence files, was at approximately 15:15 or 3:15 P.M. His wingman reportedly began to turn back, to base, at about 15:18. When asked if he had seen anything, he said, just a flash, like the sun off an airplane canopy. That is when the AF says Captain Mantell’s watch was stopped, and broken -at 15:18.
From the interviews with "Mrs. Joe Phillips", whose property Captain Mantell’s plane came down on, Captain Mantell’s plane exploded and crashed closer to 16:00 hours or 4 P.M.
Mrs. Phillips explained that she had heard his plane going back and forth and up and down, for quite some time, before she heard a loud explosion. Running outside, she witnessed his plane’s fuselage falling right in front of her.
She said it sounded to her like the plane was being flown by someone who was lost and was searching for where to go. Her testimony seems to confirm that Captain Mantell was indeed unconscious or already dead, for some time before the explosion occurred. If his watch was shattered and frozen at 15:18, then what ever happened to him must have occurred at that time and was so violent that it shattered his watch. His plane then flew, on its own, for nearly 40 minutes, before finally exploding at around 1600 hours. This testimony does not jive with the theory that he simply climbed until stalling, only to nose dive into overspeed, back to the earth. The moment that Hypoxia kicked in would not shatter Captain Mantell’s watch. It appears that it was already broken before his plane impacted with the ground.
These are just two examples of why I have continued on my journey. Had I just listened to the “experts” who continually stressed that these cases were "solved" cases that I should ignore, I wouldn’t have discovered these important clues. I wouldn’t have been looking.
The Aztec UFO story is another example. I used to agree with the “hoax” angle, as there didn’t seem to be much in the way of provable data surrounding the case. Other "researchers" always referred to the supposed informants with terms such as "two traveling con-artists". Then, when Mr. William Steinman’s book was released (see: https://www.amazon.com/UFO-Crash-Aztec-Well-Secret/dp/093426905X ) it provided more specific details but which details also turned out to be slightly off. For example, the declaration of an air defense emergency on 25 March 1948 was correct. Other details were not. There was an emergency declared, as Mr. Steinman and Colonel Stevens claimed, but it was not declared or ordered by General Marshall, it was by General Spaatz.
When attempting to assess the entire picture, this kind of information is crucial. Some truth, some not so truth. I searched and discovered much material that demonstrated clearly, not just to me, that the evidence supports the fact that something very important happened on that day, in March. After some extensive fact-checking, I came away satisfied that the air emergency was not clearly triggered by any move made by or attempted by the Soviets. Since, in Steinman’s book first, then Scott Ramsey’s team (see: https://www.amazon.com/Aztec-UFO-Incident-Elaborate-Perplexing/dp/1632650010 ) the date was seemingly established, from claimed first-hand witnesses, to have been 25 March 1948, that is the date I investigated. To my knowledge, these witnesses would have been fairly “clueless” about anything having to do with air defense history. Two witnesses, for certain, didn’t even know each other. They all claimed it occurred on the 25th. Other documents, read since I began my 25 March 1948 search, seem to deepen the mystery. For instance, there were alarms published in newspapers dealing with, what was assumed to be, Russian subs which had been sighted off the West coast, beginning on the 25th.
One thing I discovered is certain, from reading all those Air Force UFO files. There were cases seriously investigated, dealing with fallen unknown aero-vehicles. How many of these types of incidents occurred over the time of the UFO program’s existence? I certainly don’t know the answer to that question but I have read many cases that seem to imply that it has happened several times.
If even one of these crashes or landings were objects not from around here, then it could explain why the engineering and weapons groups were involved in the UFO program.
In 1960 the main consultant to the Air Force's UFO program, Professor Allen Hynek, began answering directly to Colonel Raymond S. Sleeper. Colonel Sleeper was Commander of the Air Force’s Foreign Technology Division. Documents I have read show that in 1960, then Director of Research and Engineering, USAF, was General Bernard Schriever. He had just recently replaced General James Ferguson. This is important to know, because General Schriever and Colonel Raymond S. Sleeper, were good friends, comrades with a cause. Colonel Sleeper later described himself as having been “Commander of the Air Force Foreign Technology Division for National Security at Wright Patterson, AFB, Ohio”.
The documents also seem to indicate that the real UFO program, that of serious Flying Disc investigations, was conducted for and also by the Air Defense Command. Joining them was the Army General Staff/Intelligence Division and the Central Intelligence Group/Agency.
On the day that the Aztec incident was to have occurred, a month after Project: SIGN’s “official” creation, an official letter of instruction was produced by the Army General Staff, Director of Intelligence, making it policy that reliably reported “Flying Discs” were to be regarded as Unconventional Aircraft. Air Defense Command also issued an official Directive: ADC 45-5, on March 25, 1948 but I have also found that this Regulation: 45-5, was actually an update. The original 45-5 began as early as February 6, 1948, possibly coinciding with the creation of Project: SIGN. Still, from March 25th, 1948 onwards, only that date in March is referenced for 45-5.
Air Force Regulation 200-1, Continental Air Command and Tactical Air Command directives, also referred to as 200-1, were published March 25, 1948. It would seem, to me that SAC/ConAC and TAC 200-1, were the predecessor of AFR 200-2.
It has been confirmed that General Carl Spaatz ordered our “fledgling Air Defense units” on 24-hour-a-day alert, beginning on March 25, 1948 but why? I delved into the possible explanations for the alert. Fear of a Russian attack was promoted by several people but I found it to be baseless. It just stands to reason that something having to do with Flying Discs occurred on March 25, 1948, because of the series of directives issued on that day.
Over the years, reflecting the changes in technology, the T2/T3 engineering and propeller division, at Wright Field, branched out and evolved. Air Technical Intelligence became Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command and then Air Force Space Command. Elements of T2 and T3 Engineering became other offices, such as Technology Defense Engineering (TDE) and then Technology, Defense, Engineering and Weapons (TDEW). These all later grew into offices under the Foreign Aerospace Science and Technology division (FAST). The Aerospace Forces concept was beginning to take shape.
It would behoove us to not forget Colonel Raymond S. Sleeper's involvement with the UFO program. That would be one huge piece of a puzzle to misplace. Yet that's what he is today; just another one of those conveniently missing features of UFO history. This is especially strange, since he was, from what I've read so far, Professor J. Allen Hynek’s boss, during all those early to mid-nineteen sixties cases.
In the most comprehensive and complete published UFO history, even those published by researchers that I have considerable respect for, there is nary a whisper about Sleeper. Another name never mentioned in connection with the UFO subject is General Schriever, even though General Schriever played both a crucial part of getting Weapon System 117L development up and running while he held the position of AF/DRE (Director/Research and Engineering). WS-117L development, to create a global satellite watch program, known as ARS, was occurring under General Schriever’s watch, which was taking place at the very moment he was officially taking charge of the over-all UFO program, according to official files.
I do not have an opinion, one way or another, about Colonel Sleeper. I am not on some anti-Sleeper kick, nor am I praising him beyond the norm. I am going at this cold. I am grateful to whomever is responsible for the making it possible to read all these documents, whether they were simply part of a release, or that they are left-overs from some researcher’s filing of an FOIA request. Some are also from piles discarded by CIA historians, having finished going through them for themselves. It should not be considered complete, in any way. I feel I have barely scratched the surface.
It appears from this record, so far, that when Colonel Sleeper began his Air Intelligence/Foreign Technology/UFO office career, in 1960, it was with a posture of "there's nothing there", but later, by 1967, it was "how are we going to educate the public on Extra-Terrestrial Life?"
According to a bio published in the Washington Post, in 1995, Colonel Sleeper:
was born in Laconia, New Hampshire and graduated from West Point in 1940, served as a bomber pilot, in World War 2, received a master’s degree in social psychology at Harvard University and then attended, then later served on the faculty at, the Air War College (which later became Air University). In the Air Force, he specialized ‘in the acquisition and analysis of foreign technology’.
In a letter penned to William Casey, then Director CIA (1985), which I found online, Colonel Sleeper wrote: I commanded the United States Air Force Foreign Technology Division and was Chief of the Air Force Systems Command Foreign Technology office (technical intelligence), from 1960 to 1967...Later in that letter, retired AF Colonel Sleeper said, Someone asked Solzenitsyn how to defeat communism and he replied, “tell the truth, tell the truth, tell the truth”. Later he wrote, Meanwhile, I am running a study developing a complete book on “Soviet deception”. General Bernard A. Schriever is chairing the study.
So even in 1985, he and General Schriever were still going at it together, just as they did for the UFO program beginning in 1960. As Commander FTD, Sleeper was also head of the Air Force’s Technology, Defense and Engineering’s UFO office (TDE-UFO). TDE-UFO later became Technology, Defense, Engineering and Weapons’ UFO Office or TDEW-UFO.
Its public knowledge now, that Colonel Sleeper held positions in three distinct places in his career: 1 Psychological Warfare (presumably targeting the Soviets) 2 Foreign Technology and Weapons 3 Unconventional Aircraft and UFOs.
While there can be no denying Colonel Sleepers involvement in nuts and bolts aerospace projects, his connections to our early psychological warfare endeavors were just as concrete. Colonel Sleeper could be called a cold-war hawk, ever eager to find new ways to thwart the Communist menace. His plans utilized a combination of psychological measures with specifically applied air power. He was Air Force representative for the Psychological Warfare/Intelligence Committee or PIC. The PIC was created as a result of the many meetings held by the different parties dealing with national security, after World War 2 was over. These meetings, having continued, had also created the Central Intelligence Group (CIG), the National Intelligence Authority (NIA), the Armed Forces Security Agency (AFSA) and the Director, Central Intelligence (D/CI).
1948 was a big year in UFO history. In that year Colonel Sleeper designed a plan he called Operation: Control. His plan was an attempt to broaden the scope of how Air Defense and Counter Offensives were applied, in real time. Colonel Sleeper’s plan drew quite a bit of attention from some very high-level people, in the Air Force. Whether Colonel Sleeper had any “UFO” connections back then is unknown to this researcher. His obvious connections appear closer to 1960, when he becomes Commander, Foreign Technology Division and head TDEW-UFO.
While conducting part-time internet searches, I ran across the July\August 1984 edition of the Air University Review, published by Air University (AU), Maxwell AFB, Alabama, report, written by Lieutenant Colonel David J. Dean, titled:PROJECT CONTROL; Creative Strategic Thinking at Air University. In this piece, LTC Dean provides some background on Colonel Sleeper's thinking and what type of person Colonel Sleeper was -that is based on the thoughts that fueled his plan to keep the Soviets, and any other Communist enemies in check.
He realized his bold way of interpreting air policy, after witnessing, first hand, during sessions with Government Representatives, just how much the military thinkers of the day and the political thinkers of the day, were so completely out of step with each other.
The agreed upon plan to bomb Russian civilians in their cities bothered Sleeper. The high civilian casualty plan ran counter to our needs and objectives, thought Colonel Sleeper. He sought to change our policy from targeting major cities and their infrastructure, with atomic bombs, to a more thought out, broader plan, which would include psychological warfare.
To quote Mr. Kennan (State Department) from the note section of Lt. Colonel Dean’s report:
If you drop atomic bombs in Moscow, Leningrad, and the rest, you will simply convince the Russians you are barbarians trying to destroy their very society and they will rise up and wage an indeterminate war against the West.
According to LTC Dean’s report, Colonel Sleeper, …wanted to find new means of using the deterrence value of our overwhelming strategic air power in combination with economic, political, conventional military, and psychological warfare pressures to force the Soviet Union to acquiesce to strong US policy initiatives and national interests.
Colonel Sleeper drew from early history that air power used effectively was a much cheaper alternative to any sort of long drawn out negotiating, in order to exert ones will. The psychological aspects to his ideas focused on developing a regime to maintain or be put into place, which would be more apt to be persuaded towards our desires. LTC Dean continued, “Under these conditions, air power could be used in incremental steps to serve as a tool of persuasion, to apply direct pressure or force, and to aid in administering or policing the target country if direct occupation became necessary.”
Colonel Sleeper’s concept was known by the phrase, control by air and other means.
How did a person like Colonel Sleeper get the TDEW-UFO Office gig? His main thrust, that is of his persona, seems to have been as an anti-communist Warlord. Everything was about the Russians. They were behind everything.
Project: Control was concocted in 1948. Since, at this point there is no way this researcher could ever go back to believing that the Aztec story was a hoax, especially not one concocted by “two con-artists”, I asked myself this question: was there a connection between Colonel Sleeper’s project and the Aztec story? I ask if only because Colonel Sleeper later became involved, deeply, in the UFO story. In fact, not just the UFO story, but the Extra-Terrestrial Visitors story.
Part of the angle I am examining has to do with the creation of Control Officers, and Top-Secret Control Officers. This pattern of gate-keepers set up to block outsiders from getting information is a pattern I have seen in both the UFO program, as well as with Weapon System 117-L development, both supposedly Un-Classified programs. Was this usage of Control Officers something that came from Colonel Sleeper?
Two of Colonel Sleeper’s bosses would have been, first General Ferguson, then General Schriever, who were both heads of the Ballistic Missile development and Weapon System-117L development, in the late nineteen fifties to the nineteen sixties. Was Sleeper chosen to run Foreign Technology Division’s UFO office simply because he had a knack for running things on a very tight budget? There is circumstantial evidence to support this. With Project: Control, Colonel Sleeper ran into a wall, just when his plan seemed to be ramping up. Because of disagreements among his bosses, he had to find some way to pull a team together, when financial support seemed to become suddenly sparse.
He learned to be creative and work small.
Again, according to LTC Dean, after a meeting held at the Pentagon, in 1953, Project Control got a huge lift of support from Brigadier General Hunter Harris, who was Director of War plans for the Air Force.
Project: Control was gaining traction. Deputy Chief of Staff/Operations, Lt. General Thomas D. White, also threw his support behind Sleeper’s ideas, referring to the project as “unusually significant.” After his attempts to increase his budget, Colonel Sleeper found that the Air Staff had other ideas, as they demanded that the Project: Control budget remain within the over-all budget, and not outside of it.
Major General Franklin Carroll, commander/Human Resources Research Board, offered him 100,000 dollars to go toward hiring academic consultants to get the job done. With a staff consisting of 2 Air University provided Officers, four civilians and a stenographer, the project was launched in August of 1953. Soon Japanese, Soviet, U. S. and German capabilities were being studied.
In 1954, General Twining, Air Force Vice Chief of Staff, wanted to know what air power, such as Colonel Sleeper proposed, could be brought to bear in Indochina. Colonel Sleeper’s plan was explored, and then applied to Vietnam. One of the aspects to applying Colonel Sleeper’s Project: Control, toward the problem of Vietnam, was embodied in this bullet:
The best way to fight Communists is with native guerilla forces that have helicopter mobility and are backed with both airlift and interdiction aircraft and a naval blockade.
We used our own Air Cavalry with helicopter mobility, but later-on, the “locals” part of the project was attempted, with varying degrees of success and failure. One thing that was adhered to, and later kept in future protocol, was Colonel Sleeper’s method of combining of different military agencies, working in concert. It was an integral part of his planning and ideas. Even so, Colonel Sleeper and his project slowly slipped into a type of mini obscurity, over time.
With all these things in his life and career already, it is still a fact that in 1966, Colonel Sleeper was J. Allen Hynek’s superior, as Commander, Foreign Technology Division. Professor Hynek is now fairly-well known as being remembered as the chief scientific consultant to the Air Force’s UFO Project: Blue Book. As pointed out earlier, Colonel Sleeper’s title was not just Commander\FTD, it was also to include him as the Commander\Technology, Engineering and Weapons group/UFO or TDEW-UFO. While in this position, he presented an image and persona that one might have expected, that is, he presented himself as a staunch anti-communist war-hawk type, mostly set against the “pro-UFO” crowds.
To people like Professor Hynek, Colonel Sleeper did not appear to be interested in solving anything. To Hynek, his boss seemed to be part of something bigger, which he himself, Professor Hynek, was not a part of. In the files turned over to the archives, pertaining to the entirety of the over-all UFO program (which had been in operation since, at least 1947), Colonel Sleeper presented another side of his anti-UFO point-of-view, and it is worth a second look.
It would appear from documents available, the Colonel Sleeper wanted to find a way to teach the public about Extra Terrestrials. As the Air Force was pulling together, what would later be known to us as the Condon Committee (a result of the Scientific Advisory Board’s recommendations for the UFO program), several briefings, letter campaigns and meetings were held, to discuss the issues surrounding the UFO problem.
For instance, on July 27, 1967, Colonel Sleeper wrote to then Deputy Director of Information, for the Air Force, Brigadier General William C. Garland, and stated:
Our 7 July 1967 briefing to you and members of your staff on the subject of “Unidentified Flying Objects” stressed the fact that fifty million Americans now believe in the existence of the phenomenon. It was concluded that the Air Force respond to this anchored public attitude by: announcing and maintaining a scientific investigation program for UFO’s; keeping the public well informed at all times; and initiating positive programs in such scientific areas as extraterrestrial communications...The discussion initiated by the briefing was responsive and your offer to support action required to energize R&D community interest was much appreciated…Recommendations which you and your staff have for redirecting the focus of the UFO problem towards greater involvement by the scientific community would be greatly appreciated.
In the reply to his friend, on August 2nd, General Garland wrote this:
I have thought about the problem many times since your briefing here. I am more convinced than ever that a positive program in extraterrestrial life or communications studies should not be tied to the UFO problem. I know you don’t agree with this and I am not sure Bill Doolittle does either; however, I am convinced that we would really open the flood gates on UFO problems if the public thought that the Condon group was about to involve in extensive research on extraterrestrial activities. I realize that Condon must address this subject, but this is different from conducting active research. I think research in this area should be accomplished by an entirely unrelated activity.
Colonel Sleeper voiced his opinion, to General C. Garland, that because of public opinion of the subject at the time, the UFO public relations problem might be aided by beginning a program to educate the public, in some way, on extraterrestrial matters -such as extraterrestrial life and extraterrestrial communications. General Garland acknowledged that he agreed it was important, but that nobody connected with the UFO problem, especially not Condon himself, could be associated, in any way, with said education programs. He offered up that some outside, unconnected activity should do it.
(see: https://robertkoford.wixsite.com/grudge/page-ten )
Here is Mr. Anti-Communist good Guy, UFOs-are-a-waste-of-time, personality -it’s all about the Russians and counter psyops, to ensure that the dumb American public doesn’t cave in to Soviet propaganda -discussing with General Garland the ways to educate the public on extraterrestrial life and communications. He wasn’t talking about satellite communications. We know this from the General’s letter back to Colonel Sleeper. He spoke much more clearly about what the term meant.
Colonel Sleeper and his partner, General Schriever, appear to have been extremely concerned about the Russians using clever psychological propaganda techniques and lies to alter American thought. That through these tactics the unknowing American public would be like putty in their hands. They could cause distrust in representative government. And yet, as history shows us, these different effects were realized, and more but not via the Soviets. The very people most vocal about protecting the American people from the deceptions coming out of Moscow had become the deceivers, themselves.
The secretive UFO policy even devolved into considering throwing UFO witnesses into insane asylums. This was seen in the documents, Blue Book era. The crazy truth is, it was their own lies and deceptions, dealing with this issue, that set the eventual stage we recognize in action today. Many people have developed distrust in government, and it arose from being fed a steady stream of lies, over several years. Colonel Sleeper and his bosses have brought about the very atmosphere they claimed so ferociously, for so long, to be on the guard against, from our foes in Russia.
In the end, it truly seems as if it was our own military which brought about so much distrust, not the Russians. Colonel Sleeper and General Garland were correct, back in 1967, to have been interested in educating the public, instead of lying to them. What can explain, not just the cavernous difference between public stance and private position on the reality of extra-terrestrials, but also why this decision to educate and inform the American public was thwarted, and under whose order? Colonel Sleeper and General Garland seemed to share knowledge of something deeper, when it came to the subject of UFOs. This matches Professor Hynek’s observations of his boss.
Much more needs to be vetted out, about Colonel Sleeper’s accurate UFO involvement. I will continue to work with whatever time I have to do so, regarding this matter.